Research

Four Potential Downsides of the Ketogenic Diet

The latest trend in nutrition is the ketogenic diet. The defining principle of the ketogenic diet is that it severely restricts the intake of carbohydrates to less than 50 grams per day, ideally as low as 20 grams. For comparison, the average person consumes 265 grams per day. It also relies on consuming a very high percentage of fat per day, often at levels around 70 to 90 percent of the total daily caloric intake. The point is to trigger your body into burning fat and reaching a stage of ketosis. Yes, makes sense, and you can likely see where there would be health conditions in which fat burning would be favorable.

Perturbation of microbiota in one-day old broiler chickens with antibiotic for 24 hours negatively affects intestinal immune development

Gut microbial colonization and development of immune competence are intertwined and are influenced by early-life nutritional, environmental, and management factors. Perturbation of the gut microbiome at young age affects the crosstalk between intestinal bacteria and host cells of the intestinal mucosa.

Supra-Additive Effects of Combining Fat and Carbohydrate on Food Reward

Post-ingestive signals conveying information about the nutritive properties of food are critical for regulating ingestive behavior. Here, using an auction task concomitant to fMRI scanning, we demonstrate that participants are willing to pay more for fat + carbohydrate compared with equally familiar, liked, and caloric fat or carbohydrate foods and that this potentiated reward is associated with response in areas critical for reward valuation, including the dorsal striatum and mediodorsal thalamus. We also show that individuals are better able to estimate the energy density of fat compared with carbohydrate and fat + carbohydrate foods, an effect associated with functional connectivity between visual (fusiform gyrus) and valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) areas. These results provide the first demonstration that foods high in fat and carbohydrate are, calorie for calorie, valued more than foods containing only fat or carbohydrate and that this effect is associated with greater recruitment of central reward circuits.

Towards the control of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens with in-feed antibiotics phasing-out worldwide

Poultry production has undergone a substantial increase compared to the livestock industries since 1970. However, the industry worldwide is now facing challenges with the removal of in-feed antibiotics completely or gradually, as the once well-controlled poultry diseases have re-emerged to cause tremendous loss of production.

Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced stress on Salmonella choleraesuis shedding and persistence in swine

A glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), previously shown in swine to induce many of the hallmark parameters of stress, was administered to Salmonella choleraesuis carrier-swine and the effects on Salmonella fecal shedding and tissue colonization were evaluated.

The complex interplay between stress and bacterial infections in animals

Over the past decade, an increasing awareness has arisen of the role of neuroendocrine hormones in the susceptibility of mammalian hosts to a bacterial infection. During a stress response, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and neuroendocrine factors are released into the circulation of the host.